Expression of biological markers in oral squamous cell carcinomas

Humberto T. Gassen, Sérgio A. Q. Miguens Junior, Vanessa Constatin, Simone M. S. Machado, Aurelício N. Silva Junior, Pedro A. G. Hernández


Squamous cell carcinomas are the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy, accounting for about 90% of all malignant oral lesions. Detection of the condition at early stages is rare; as a result, the clinical and histological characteristics and prognosis of this tumor have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and microscopic features of squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemical analysis and assessing biological markers of angiogenesis and tumor vascular activity (anti-CD31, anti-CD34, Factor VIII), cell proliferation (Ki-67), and loss of cell suppression (p53). Tolonium chloride 1% was used to determine the optimal biopsy site. Six patients seen at the Stomatology Service of a university hospital in Canoas, southern Brazil, with a suspected diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed. All patients were male, with a mean age of 56.6 years, and four had a white skin color. Lesions were detected in the tongue (4) and tonsillar pillar (2). All diagnoses were confirmed by microscopy (hematoxylin-eosin staining). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed p53 expression in 5 of the cases, Ki-67 in 6, and anti-CD34 in 1; anti-CD31 and Factor VIII were not detected in any patient. Our findings suggest an important contribution of tumor markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of these malignancies, as well as in treatment planning.

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